December 1996. The WTO`s dispute resolution body found that India had failed to meet its obligations under Articles 70.8 and 70.9 of trips. He stated that “we do not agree with India that the transitional provisions of the TRIPS agreement necessarily exempt India from the obligation to make legislative changes to its patent system within the first five years following the operation of the agreement.” In particular, the TRIPS requires WTO members to grant intellectual property rights to authors and other copyright holders as well as to neighbouring rights holders, i.e. performers, phonograms and broadcasters; Geographical indications Industrial designs; Built-in switching designs Patents New plant varieties Brands; Trade names and undisclosed or confidential information. TRIPS also defines enforcement procedures, remedies and dispute resolution procedures. The protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights must be consistent with the objectives that contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual benefit of producers and users of technological knowledge, and in a way that promotes social and economic well-being, and a balance of rights and obligations. 2. For the purposes of this agreement, the concept of intellectual property applies to all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 to 7 of Part II. Intellectual property refers to the creations of the mind. These creations can take many forms, such as artistic expressions, signs, symbols and names used in commerce, designs and inventions. Governments give creators the right to prevent others from using their inventions, projects or other creations, and to use this right to negotiate payments against others who use them. These are “intellectual property rights.” They take a number of forms. Books, paintings and films, for example, are covered by copyright; Eligible inventions can be patented; Product trademarks and logos can be registered as trademarks; And so on.
Governments grant these rights to creators to encourage them to develop and disseminate ideas that benefit society as a whole. The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an agreement of international law between all World Trade Organization (WTO) member states. It sets minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property by national governments, as is the case for nationals of other WTO member states.  The TRIPS agreement was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is managed by the WTO.